[Educator-Gold] PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND FITNESS : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY : URBAN : CITIES : OPEN SPACES : HEALTH: Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease

 

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PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND FITNESS : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY :

URBAN :

CITIES :

OPEN SPACES :

HEALTH:

Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity,
Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease

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Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity,
Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease

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Sallis, J. F., Floyd, M. F., Rodruez, D. A., & Saelens, B. E.
(2012).
Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity,
Obesity, and Cardiovascular Disease
Circulation, 125(5), 729-737.

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/125/5/729.short

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/125/5/729.full

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Summary and Conclusions

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There is a growing consensus that large changes in population levels of physical activity and other behaviors required to improve cardiovascular health will require major modifications in environments and policies. Ecological models are the conceptual basis for comprehensive interventions that emphasize environmental and policy changes and that can have widespread and sustainable effects. These interventions are complemented with individual education and motivation and efforts to change social support and norms. Physical activityspecific ecological models indicate which environmental factors are expected to be related to physical activity in multiple life domains: Leisure/recreation/exercise, occupation (school for youth), transportation, and household. Over the past decade, a proliferation of interdisciplinary research has generally supported hypotheses derived from ecological models and identified specific built environment attributes and combinations of attributes that are related to physical activity, mainly for recreation and transportation purposes, and obesity. It is becoming clear that racial/ethnic minority and low-income communities are disadvantaged in access to recreation facilities, positive aesthetics, and protection from traffic. These results provide an empirical rationale for intervention.

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There are recent examples of environmental changes or community-wide multilevel interventions that had positive effects on physical activity or obesity. Continuing research needs are to improve the rigor of study designs, confirm subgroup- or context-specific built environment associations, identify optimal combinations of attributes, improve understanding of the policy change processes required to achieve environmental changes, and evaluate multilevel interventions.

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Both research teams and community-based initiatives are collaborating with a wide range of professionals and sectors of society, such as recreation, transportation, city planning, architecture, landscape architecture, geography, criminal justice, and law, in addition to health professionals and behavioral scientists. These diverse teams have stimulated innovations in research, new approaches to intervention, and improved connections with decision makers who can make environment and policy changes in nonhealth sectors of society. The practice of physical activity promotion, obesity prevention, and CVD risk reduction has changed to reflect the shift to multilevel interventions. Major foundations and public health agencies are implementing community-based interventions targeting environment and policy change.

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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sources Citing This Publication

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Google Scholar

http://tinyurl.com/guss6gp

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Content Sample

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Mathieu, R. A., Powell-Wiley, T. M., Ayers, C. R.,
McGuire, D. K., Khera, A., Das, S. R., & Lakoski, S. G.
(2012).
Physical activity participation, health perceptions,
and cardiovascular disease mortality in a multiethnic population:
The Dallas Heart Study. American heart journal, 163(6), 1037-1040.

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Owen, N., Salmon, J., Koohsari, M. J., Turrell, G.,
and Giles-Corti, B.
(2014).
Sedentary behaviour and health: mapping environmental
and social contexts to underpin chronic disease prevention.
British journal of sports medicine, 48(3), 174-177.

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Koohsari, M. J., Badland, H., & Giles-Corti, B.
(2013).
(Re) Designing the built environment to support physical activity:
bringing public health back into urban design and planning.
Cities, 35, 294-298.

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Wen, M., and Kowaleski-Jones, L.
(2012).
The built environment and risk of obesity in the United States:
Racial ethnic disparities.
Health and place, 18(6), 1314-1322.

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Heath, G. W., and Troped, P. J.
(2012).
The role of the built environment in shaping the health behaviors
of physical activity and healthy eating for cardiovascular health.
Future cardiology, 8(5), 677-679.

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Astell-Burt, T., Feng, X., and Kolt, G. S.
(2014).
Greener neighborhoods, slimmer people and quest;
Evidence from 246 920 Australians.
International Journal of Obesity, 38(1), 156-159.

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Pearson, T. A., Palaniappan, L. P., Artinian, N. T.,
Carnethon, M. R., Criqui, M. H., Daniels, S. R., … and
Goff, D. C. (2013).
American Heart Association Guide for
Improving Cardiovascular Health at the Community Level,
2013
Update A Scientific Statement for Public Health
Practitioners, Healthcare Providers, and Health Policy Makers.
Circulation, 127(16), 1730-1753.

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Lakerveld, J., Brug, J., Bot, S., Teixeira, P. J.,
Rutter, H., Woodward, E., … and Robertson, A.
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Mler-Riemenschneider, F., Pereira, G., Villanueva, K.,
Christian, H., Knuiman, M., Giles-Corti, B., & Bull, F. C.
(2013).
Neighborhood walkability and cardiometabolic risk factors
in australian adults: an observational study.
BMC public health, 13(1), 755.

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